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Vaccine Comparison

12MP Ag NY-ESO-1 Alpha Fetoprotein Plasmid DNA Vaccine Ankara (MVA) Ankara (MVA) and ALVAC(2) autologous dendritic cell vaccine (DCV) autologous dendritic cells (DCs) autologous monocyte-derived mature DCs pulsed with p53, survivin and telomerase-derived peptides Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), C. parvum Cancer Subunit GV1001 Protein Vaccine Canvaxin class I HLA-A*0201-restricted gp100209-2M peptide Colorectal cancer DNA vaccine pCEA/HBsAg encoding carcinoembryonic antigen and hepatitis B surface antigen CpG 7909/PF3512676 DNP-modified autologous vaccine electroloading of mature dendritic cells with melanoma whole tumor cell lysate Flagrp170 gp100 gp100 + Mart-1 + Mart-3 gp100:209-217(210M) peptide vaccine GVAX Lung Cancer Vaccine hapten dinitrophenyl Hexapeptide melanoma vaccine HSPPC-96 human leukocyte antigen class I-modified peptides HUVECs-OK432 vaccine IFN/tremem IMM-101 Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) alone, or a melanoma vaccine in IFA intralesional bacile Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intralesional bacile Calmette-Guérin (BCG), DTIC, vincristine Ipilimumab ipilimumab, vemurafenib L612 HuMAb Large Multivalent Immunogen (LMI) vaccine mAb PC61 and DC/tumor fusion MAGE-A12:170-178 MAGE-A3 + AS15 MAGE-A3-genetically modified lymphocytes MART-1 Melan-A/Mart-1 Melanoma DNA vaccine TA2M™ encoding tyrosinase peptides Melanoma-specific Melan-A/Mart-1 peptide + virus-like nanoparticles mRNA-Electroporated Dendritic Cells pCR3.1-VS-HSP65-TP-GRP6-M2 Recombinant NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX Vaccine Recombinant NY-ESO-1 Protein vaccine adjuvanted with Imiquimod SRL172 Synchotrope TA2M TLR-9/GM TriMixDC-MEL tyrosinase240–251S, 368-376D
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Type: Multipeptide
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: 2 class I major histocompatibility complex–restricted melanoma peptides (Slingluff et al., 2011).
  • Type: Peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: NY-ESO-1
  • NY-ESO-1 gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Description: A recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein made from an overlapping 17 overlapping amino acid sequences of 20-22 bp length with 10 bp overlap (Adams et al., 2008)
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: A cancer vaccine made of a recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein with a TLR7 agonist (Adams et al., 2008)
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Human
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Human
  • AFP gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Description: A vaccine consisting of plasmid DNA encoding alpha fetoprotein. After vaccination, expressed alpha fetoprotein may stimulate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells that express alpha fetoprotein, resulting in tumor cell lysis. (NCI05) (NCIT_C48373).
  • Type: Recombinant plasmid DNA
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Tyrosine, MART-1, NY-ESO-1
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: A modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) encoding 7 melanoma tumor antigen cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. (Smith et al., 2005)
  • Type: peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: 5T4 and gp100
  • Preparation: Recombinant MVA-gp100M and ALVAC(2)-5T4 were constructed to complement existing ALVAC(2)-gp100M and MVA-5T4 vectors. Recombinant TAA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells was confirmed by Western blot analysis. 5T4 expression was approximately equal for both viruses, whereas ALVAC-derived gp100 was quickly degraded, at a time point when MVA-derived gp100 was still stable and expressed at high levels (Hanwell et al., 2013). 
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Dentritic Cell
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Dendritic cell vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Dendritic cell
  • Status: Research
  • Preparation: Autologous monocyte-derived mature dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with p53, survivin and telomerase-derived peptides (HLA-A2+ patients) (Trepiakas et al., 2010).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0011507
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • TERT gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: GM-CSF vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intradermal injection (i.d.)
  • Type: Allogenic whole-cell
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: TA90
  • Preparation: An irradiated allogeneic whole-cell vaccine composed of cells from three melanoma cell lines (Faries et al., 2009).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Preparation: Seventy HLA-A*0201+ stage IIb–IV melanoma patients were vaccinated with class I HLA-A*0201-restricted gp100209-2M peptide and stratified for HLA-DP4 restriction. HLA-DP4+ patients were also vaccinated with class II HLA-DP4-restricted MAGE-3243-258 peptide. Patients from both groups were randomized to receive 2 doses of leuprolide or not (Vence et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004428
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Human
  • S gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3 expressed the small and middle proteins of the Hepatitis B surface antigen (Conry et al., 2002).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • CEACAM5 (CEA) gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: Vector pcDNA3 expressed the carcinoembryonic antigen (Conry et al., 2002).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Vector: pcDNA3 (Conry et al., 2002)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Analog peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: NY-ESO-1 157-165V
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: DNP-modified autologous vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Dendritic Cell vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: A simple, widely used approach to generating multivalent cancer vaccines is to load tumor whole cell lysates into dendritic cells (DCs). Current DC vaccine manufacturing processes require co-incubation of tumor lysate antigens with immature DCs and their subsequent maturation (Wolfraim et al., 2013).
  • Type: engineered chimeric molecule
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: gp100/PMEL and TRP2/DCT
  • Preparation: Strategically incorporated a pathogen (i.e., flagellin)-derived, NF-κB-stimulating "danger" signal into the large stress protein or chaperone Grp170 (HYOU1/ORP150) that was previously shown to facilitate antigen crosspresentation. This engineered chimeric molecule (i.e., Flagrp170) is capable of transporting tumor antigens and concurrently inducing functional activation of dendritic cells (DC) (Yu et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: synthetic peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: gp100
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: Synthetic peptide vaccines based on the genes encoding cancer antigens hold promise for the development of novel cancer immunotherapies (Rosenberg et al., 1998).
  • Type: Peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: gp100, MART-1, MAGE-3
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: A vaccine that injected peptides of gp100, MART-1, MAGE-3 (Hersey et al., 2005).
  • Type: Peptide
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Genetically modified cancer cells
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Human
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Human
  • GM-CSF (human) gene engineering:
    • Type: Genetic modification
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Preparation: This is an autologous lung cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific lung cancer cells genetically modified to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an immunostimulatory cytokine (NCIT_C1979). GM-CSF modulates the proliferation and differentiation of a variety of hematopoietic progenitor cells with some specificity towards stimulation of leukocyte production and may reverse treatment-induced neutropenias.
  • Type: DNP vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: Postsurgical adjuvant therapy with autologous DNP-modified vaccine appears to produce survival rates that are markedly higher than have been reported with surgery alone. Moreover, this approach has some intriguing immunobiologic features that might provide insights into the human tumor-host relationship (Berd et al., 1997).
  • Type: multipeptide
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Antigen: gp100, tyrosinase, MART1, MAGEA
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: Autologous tumor-derived heat shock protein-peptide complex 96 (HSPPC-96) (Eton et al., 2010).
  • Type: Peptide vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: xenogeneic or syngeneic endothelial cells
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: OK432
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: Vaccination with xenogeneic or syngeneic endothelial cells targeting tumor angiogenesis is effective for inhibiting tumor growth. OK432, an effective adjuvant, was mixed with viable human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to prepare a novel HUVECs-OK432 vaccine, which could have an improved therapeutic efficacy (Xu et al., 2013).
  • Type: peptide vaccination
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: IFN-α2b and tremelimumab (Tarhini et al., 2012)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Inactivated or "killed" vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: IMM-101, a suspension of heat-killed whole cell Mycobacterium obuense. IMM-101 is safe and well tolerated and there is a rationale for studying IMM-101 at a nominal 1.0-mg dose to complement conventional cytotoxic therapy for patients with advanced cancer (Stebbing et al., 2012).
  • Type: multipepted
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Preparation: At a primary vaccine site, all patients received a multi-peptide melanoma vaccine in IFA. At a replicate vaccine site, which was biopsied, group 1 received IFA only; group 2 received vaccine in IFA. Lymphocytes isolated from replicate vaccine site microenvironments (VSME) were compared to time-matched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (Salerno et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: melanoma antigens
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: BCG activates both specific and nonspecific immune responses. Thus, in vitro parameters of cellular immunity, including migration inhibitory factor production and inhibition of leukocyte migration, are affected by intralesional BCG, and some, particularly the lymphocyte stimulation and rosette test, seem to correlate with the clinical response of the patients (Lieberman et al., 1975).
  • Type: chemotherapy drugs
  • Status: Research
  • Preparation: This immunization protocol consisted of the intradermal inoculation of 2 times 10(7) irradiated allogeneic melanoma cells admixed with 50 mug of percutaneous BCG (Currie and McElwain, 1975).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: monoclonal antibody
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), gp100
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: A fully human monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) that has been shown to improve survival in patients with pretreated, advanced melanoma in a phase III trial. Ipilimumab provided durable objective responses and/or stable disease in qualifying patients who received retreatment upon disease progression with a similar toxicity profile to that seen during their original treatment regimen (Robert et al., 2013).
  • Type: monoclonal antibody
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: human IgM monoclonal antibody
  • Status: Licensed
  • Antigen: GM3
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: The human IgM monoclonal antibody, L612 HuMAb, was well tolerated. Infusion of L612 HuMAb appears to produce significant antitumor activity in melanoma patients (Irie et al., 2004).
  • Type: multivalent immunogen
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: SK23-CD80+ cell line
  • Preparation: In LMI cell-sized (5-mm diameter) latex or silica spheres serve as a support structure for presenting tumor antigens, by using the SK23-CD80+ cell line to prepare an LMI vaccine. This cell line expresses all common melanoma antigens and was genetically modified to express human B7-1 (CD80). (Jha et al., 2012).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: DC/tumor fusion vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: In this study, we sought to investigate whether functional inactivation of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) PC61 prior to DC/tumor vaccination would significantly improve immunotherapy in the murine B16 melanoma model (Tan et al., 2013).
  • Type: peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: HLA-Cw*0702
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Antigen: tumor-specific MAGE-A3 antigen
  • Preparation: MAGE-A3 combined with AS15
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: In the MAGE-A3+AS15 arm, clinical activity was higher and the immune response more robust. Therefore, the AS15 immunostimulant was selected for combination with the MAGE-A3 protein in phase III trials (Kruit et al., 2013).
  • Type: autologous lymphocytes
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Antigen: MAGE-A3(Russo et al., 2013)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: multipeptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: gp100, tyrosinase, HLA-A2
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: human leukocyte antigen-A*0201
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004431
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: Human
  • Tyrosinase gene engineering:
    • Type: DNA vaccine construction
    • Description: This DNA vaccine expressed two peptides, tyrosinase 207–216 and tyrosinase 1–17, both of which are derived from human tyrosinase (Tagawa et al., 2003).
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Nanoparticle Vaccine, Peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: Melan-A/Mart-1
  • Preparation: Linked the melanoma-specific Melan-A/Mart-1 peptide to virus-like nanoparticles loaded with A-type CpG, a ligand for toll-like receptor 9 (Speiser et al., 2010).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004614
  • Type: Dendritic cell
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: tumor-associated antigens: antigen G250 with gp100 and tyrosinase protein, and pulsed with keyhole limped hemocyan (KLH) protein.
  • CA9 gene engineering:
  • Preparation: Monocyte-derived DC, electroporated with mRNA encoding gp100 and tyrosinase, were pulsed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin and administered intranodally (Aarntzen et al., 2012).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004609
  • Type: anti-GRP DNA
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: GRP
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004254
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Antigen: Full-length recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein (Nicholaou et al., 2009).
  • CTAG1B gene engineering:
  • Adjuvant: ISCOMATRIX vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004248
  • Type: Subunit vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Antigen: Recombinant, full-length NY-ESO-1 protein (Adams et al., 2008).
  • CTAG1B gene engineering:
    • Type: Recombinant protein preparation
    • Detailed Gene Information: Click Here.
  • Adjuvant: imiquimod vaccine adjuvant
  • Immunization Route: Intradermal injection (i.d.)
  • Description: Recombinant, full-length NY-ESO-1 protein was administered intradermally into imiquimod preconditioned sites followed by additional topical applications of imiquimod in patients with malignant melanoma (Adams et al., 2008).
  • Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0004610
  • Type: Live, attenuated vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • IL12 gene engineering:
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: This trial provides preliminary evidence of a new, non-toxic, immunotherapeutic regimen in the management of malignant melanoma (Nicholson et al., 2003).
  • Type: Recombinant plasmid DNA vaccine
  • Status: Research
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: peptide vaccination
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: MART-1, gp100, tyrosinase (Tarhini et al., 2012)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: mRNA electroporated autologous dendritic cells
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Preparation: In the current clinical trials, melanoma patients with systemic metastases are treated, requiring priming and/or expansion of preexisting TAA-specific T cells that are able to migrate to both the skin and internal organs. We monitored the presence of TAA-specific CD8(+) T cells infiltrating the skin at sites of intradermal TriMixDC-MEL injection (SKILs) and within the circulation of melanoma patients treated in two clinical trials (Benteyn et al., 2013).
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Peptide
  • Status: Research
  • Antigen: malaria circumsporozoite protein334–342, gp10017–25, gp100614–622
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response Host Response

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Vaccination with 12MP plus tetanus induced CD8(+) T-cell responses in 78% of patients and CD4(+) T-cell responses to tetanus peptide in 93% of patients. Vaccination with 12MP plus 6MHP induced CD8(+) responses in 19% of patients and CD4(+) responses to 6MHP in 48% of patients. CY had no significant effect on T-cell responses (Slingluff et al., 2011).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Reactivity of vaccine-induced T cells using individual rather than pooled peptides showed the induction of CD4+ T cells to several peptide epitopes, in particular the aa 119–143 epitope. CD4+ T cell responses to NY-ESO-1 were detected at two or more postvaccine time points in 7 of the 9 study subjects. 7 protein-reactive patients were tested against a pool of NY-ESO-1 overlapping peptides, which confirmed NY-ESO-1-specificity in 4 of 7 protein-reactive patients (Adams et al., 2008)

Human Response

  • Host Strain: male, 80 years, Caucasian, HBV-/HCV-, with stage II HCC
  • Vaccination Protocol: This patient was vaccinated intramuscularly between 11/2010-2/2011. Before vaccination, patients received 650 mg acetaminophen and 50 mg diphenhydramine. For each of the three monthly plasmid injections, 2.5 mg of pAFP and 2.5 mg of pGM-CSF were mixed together in the syringes before injection. For the dose of 109 pfu of AdVhAFP, the virus was diluted in sterile saline in the IMCPL before preparing the syringe for injection (Butterfield et al., 2014).
  • Immune Response: This patient had a weak AFP-specific T cell response, a strong AdV-specific cellular response and recurred with an AFP-expressing HCC at nine months (Butterfield et al., 2014).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: CTL responses were generated to only 1 of the recombinant epitopes and the magnitude of these responses (0.029-0.19% CD8(+) T cells) was below the levels usually seen in acute viral infections (Smith et al., 2005).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Equivalent levels of 5T4 were detected, whereas gp100M appeared to be expressed at higher levels and was more stable when vectored by MVA as opposed to ALVAC (Hanwell et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Immunologic monitoring showed correlation of T- and B-cell immune response with DCV clinical efficacy (p<0,05) (Baldueva et al., 2012).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: increased proportion of Th3 (CD4(+) TGF-β(+)) regulatory T lymphocytes, DTH(+) patients showed a threefold reduction of Th3 cells compared with DTH(-) patients after DCs vaccine treatment, DCs vaccination resulted in a threefold augment of the proportion of IFN-γ releasing Th1 cells and in a twofold increase of the IL-17-producing Th17 population in DTH(+) with respect to DTH(-) patients, Increased Th1 and Th17 cell populations in both blood and DTH-derived tissues(Durán-Aniotz et al., 2013)

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: A significant lower blood level of regulatory T cells (CD25(high) CD4 T cells) was demonstrable after six vaccinations in patients with stable disease compared with progressive disease (Trepiakas et al., 2010).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: total white count tended to increase but little change was seen in lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Serum IgG increased after BCG BUT NOT WITH C. parvum, serum IgA and IgM did not alter. The 'E' rosette % did show some increase mainly after C. parvum, and 'B' lymphoid cells (sIg staining) increased slightly after BCG; the 'EA' rosette % fell following C. parvum but not after BCG. Lymphocyte PHA blastogenesis increased after immunisation, particularly with BCG. Non-specific lymphocytotoxicity (51 Cr Chang target) demonstrated dramatic increases for 'non T' and 'K' cell function and a smaller increase in 'T' cell cytotoxicity following immunization (Thatcher and Crowther, 1977).

Human Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Forty-eight treatment naive patients with non-resectable, histologially confirmed adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were enrolled in the study (September 2000–March 2003). he vaccine was administered by intradermal (i.d.) injection in the right para-umbilical area following the schedule; three injections in week 1and one weekly injection in weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10. The three different doses of vaccine administered were; low dose: 60 nmole (112 μg) GV1001 in 0.10 ml saline, intermediate dose: 300 nmole (560 μg) GV1001 in 0.125 ml saline, and high dose: 1.0 μmole (1.87 mg) GV1001 in 0.20 ml saline. From 5 to 15 min before each vaccine injection, 30 μg granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor in 0.10 ml saline was injected i.d. at the vaccination site (Bernhardt et al., 2006).
  • Immune Response: Overall, a vaccine related immune response was detected in 63% of the evaluable study population (Bernhardt et al., 2006).
  • Efficacy: Median survival for the intermediate dose-group was 8.6 months, significantly longer for the low- (P = 0.006) and high-dose groups (P = 0.05). One-year survival for the evaluable patients in the intermediate dose group was 25% (Bernhardt et al., 2006).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: GM-CSF arm showed enhanced antibody responses with an increase in IgM titer against the TA90 antigen and increased TA90 immune complexes. Peripheral blood leukocyte profiles showed increases in eosinophils and basophils with decreased monocytes in the GM-CSF arm (Faries et al., 2009).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Small increase in TREC-enriched CD8+CD45RA+RO-CD27+CD103+ but not in TREC-enriched CD4+CD45RA+ROCD31+ t-cell population. Igf-1 levels were not changed, moderate increase in IL-7 levels in th sera of all patients 6 weeks after vaccination. Increased expression of CD127 (IL-7 receptor-a) at week 24, compared with baseline, was only seen in the CD8+CD45RA+ROCD27+CD103+ T-cell population (Vence et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: Repetitive dosing of pCEA/HBsAg induced HBsAg antibodies in 6 of 8 patients, and 4 of these patients achieved protective antibody levels (>10 mIU/ml) (Conry et al., 2002).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Analog peptide NY-ESO-1 157-165V in combination with CpG and Montanide to promote the expansion of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells in patients with advanced cancer. presence of tumor-induced NY-ESO-1-specific T cells of well-defined clonotypes is critical for the expansion of tumor-reactive NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells after peptide-based vaccine strategies (Fourcade et al., 2008).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Out of the 12 responding patients in the present series, 11 had developed a strong positive DTH response to their autologous tumour cells. The relatively high response rates we have witnessed when IL-2 was given following immunisation suggests that the whole tumour vaccine may have generated tumour-reactive T-cell subsets. Interleukin-2 was probably required to turn these precursors into effector cells (Lotem et al., 2004).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Electroloaded mature DCs were more potent in vitro, as judged by their ability to elicit significantly (p < 0.05) greater expansion of peptide antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, than either lysate-electroloaded immature DCs or lysate-co-incubated immature DCs, both of which must be subsequently matured. Expanded CD8(+) T cells were functional as judged by their ability to produce IFN-γ upon antigen-specific re-stimulation (Wolfraim et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: The enhanced tumor destruction is accompanied with significantly increased tumor infiltration by CD8(+) cells as well as elevation of IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-12 levels in the tumor sites (Yu et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: These experiments thus demonstrated that patients immunized with the g209-2M synthetic peptide in IFA consistently developed high levels of circulating immune precursors reactive with the native g209–217 peptide and with tumor (Rosenberg et al., 1998).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: GM-CSF did not increase DTH responses (Hersey et al., 2005).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Levels of CD4+foxp3+ cells were higher in patients who had a clinical response to treatment than in those who did not have a response. In vitro studies of T-cell reactivity showed that some patients in the vaccine group had an increase in circulating gp100 reactive T cells after vaccination (Schwartzentruber et al., 2011).

Human Response

  • Immune Response: GVAX Autologous Lung Cancer Vaccine promotes antigen presentation, up-regulates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function and may augment host antitumoral immunity (NCIT_C1979).
  • Side Effects: For safety, cells are irradiated prior to vaccination (NCIT_C1979).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: These experiments thus demonstrated that patients immunized with the g209-2M synthetic peptide in IFA consistently developed high levels of circulating immune precursors reactive with the native g209–217 peptide and with tumor (Berd et al., 1997).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Proliferation assays revealed induction of T-cell responses to the melanoma helper peptides in 81% of patients (Slingluff et al., 2008).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: IFNgamma-producing cell count rose modestly in 5 of 26 patients and returned to baseline by week 8, with no discernible association with HSPPC-96 dosing or clinical parameters (Eton et al., 2010).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Vaccination induced a rapid and persistent increase in specific effector memory CD8(+) T cells in 75% of the patients.(Filipazzi et al., 2012)

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response:  a stronger HUVEC-specific Abs and cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune response were elicited (Xu et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: significant increase in the percentage of circulating T-reg, a significant decrease in the percentage of all MDSC populations tested at day 29, most significantly for the monocyte gate MDSC (HLA-DR+low/CD14+), decrease in the percentage of the lymphoid gate MDSC phenotype and in the percentage of the monocyte gate MDSC (Tarhini et al., 2012)

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Induced specific maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which when placed in culture with naive CD4+ T cells is associated with inhibition of IL-4 and induction of CD25+FoxP3+ cells (Stebbing et al., 2012).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: VSME had fewer naïve and greater proportions of effector memory CD8(+) T cells (TCD8), majority of TCD8 within the VSME were activated (CD69(+)), with a concentration of antigen-specific (tetramer(pos)) cells in the VSME, minimal IFN-γ production in response to peptide stimulation and few tetramer(pos) cells producing IFN-γ (Salerno et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Two of four responders showed inhibition of leukocyte migration to melanoma antigens before BCG, and two of four responders were positive after BCG. There was a marked increase in active rosette forming cells in all responders and in one of the two nonresponders (Lieberman et al., 1975).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Description: This method of immunization induced a significant but transient fall in the specific inhibitory effects of the sera on tumour directed cytotoxic activity of the patients' lymphocytes. BCG alone had no detectable effect on the serum inhibitory activity level, whereas the inclusion of tumour cells in the mixture led to a prompt fall (Currie and McElwain, 1975).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: CTLA-4 is a negative regulator of T-cells, which are known to play a critical role in the immunosurveillance and destruction of tumors. By blocking CTLA-4, ipilimumab acts to potentiate T-cell-mediated antitumor immune responses (Robert et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Ipilimunab is a CTLA-4 receptor is an intracellular receptor upregulated to the T-cell surface upon T-cell activation. Ipilimunab promptly binds with the CTLA-4 receptor, preventing deactivation of the T-cell response; Vemurafenib is a BRAF V600E kinase inhibitor that halts signal trasnduction, resulting in no phosphorylation of the MAPK pathway and ultimately no survival or proliferation of the cell (Culos and Cuellar, 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Serum antibody levels peaked 24 to 48 h after starting the infusion (Irie et al., 2004).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: This screening failed to detect evidence of an antibody response to the vaccine in any patients (Jha et al., 2012).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: increase in cancer immunity was mediated by anti-tumor specific CD4+ T-helper cells, without concomitant induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (Tan et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: No convincing evidence of enhancement of the systemic immune response against MAGE-A12:170–178 could be documented (Bettinotti et al., 2003).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: No reliable correlation at the individual level can be inferred between clinical response and increased amplitude of an antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell response. This observation is in line with results of other studies evaluating MAGE-A3 (Kruit et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response:  increase of anti-TK and anti-MAGE-A3 T-cells after vaccination, (Russo et al., 2013)

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: SD-9427 increased DC numbers in the spleen and peripheral blood and augmented the ability of DCs to efficiently present CTLs and helper peptides. SD-9427 was shown to reproducibly induce initial leukocytosis in all patients. antibodies to G-CSF were detected and peaked at the nadir of the neutrophil count (Pullarkat et al., 2003).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Melan-A/Mart-1 specific CD8 T cells were analyzed ex vivo, with positive results in 6 of 14 evaluable patients. Increased percentages of T cells were found in three patients, memory/effector T cell differentiation in 4 patients, and a positive interferon-gamma Elispot assay in 1 patient. Antibody responses to P40 were observed in all patients (Lienard et al., 2009).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0000286
  • Efficacy: The fact that, at a median follow-up of 1 year, 16 of 26 patients still were alive is notable, because the median survival of patients with Stage IV melanoma in recent trials was 7–9 months from first treatment. The 11 patients who had detectable immune responses to tyrosinase 207–216 had appreciably fewer deaths and superior survival compared with the 13 patients who had no immune responses (Tagawa et al., 2003).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: 14/22 patients generated ex vivo detectable T-cell responses, with in part multifunctional T cells capable to degranulate and produce IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. relatively large fractions of responding specific T cells exhibited a central memory phenotype, more than what is achieved by other nonlive vaccines (Speiser et al., 2010).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: Vaccination with mRNA-electroporated DC induces a broad repertoire of IFNγ producing TAA-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses, particularly in stage III melanoma patients (Aarntzen et al., 2012).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: inhibition of the proliferation of B16-F10 cells invading the lungs and suppression of tumor-associated angiogenesis, downregulation of PKC, resulting in antimetastatic effects, upregulation of wild-type p53, leading to the induction of apoptosis of B16-F10, which has very low levels of endogenous p53, or antigenic epitopes in degenerating B16-F10 cells engulfed by immune-activated antigen-presenting cells could be presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes, leading to a potent immune response against the remaining tumor cells (Fang et al., 2009).

Human Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: All patients received three injections of the NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX vaccine at weeks 1, 5, and 9 (cycle 1) and were then evaluated for immunologic and clinical response. All patients had histologically confirmed stage IV (metastatic) or unresectable stage III malignant melanoma with measurable disease using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The vaccine comprised 200 μg/mL of NY-ESO-1 protein formulated with 240 μg/mL ISCOMATRIX adjuvant and was administered in a 0.5 mL i.m. injection to deliver an intended dose of 100 μg NY-ESO-1 protein and 120 μg ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (Nicholaou et al., 2009).
  • Side Effects: There were no serious adverse events deemed to be related to study drug reported for this study and no grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Only minor toxicities were reported in relation to administration of the NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX vaccine, NY-ESO-1 protein, and peptides (Nicholaou et al., 2009).
  • Efficacy: No objective confirmed responses were seen in this study. These results were unexpected based on observations from patients in the prior LUD99-008 study of the NY-ESO-1 ISCOMATRIX vaccine in the MRD setting. In the LUD99-008 study, patients receiving effective vaccination had a significantly reduced probability of relapse compared with those who received placebo, suggesting that the vaccine may have had clinical efficacy in the setting of MRD (Nicholaou et al., 2009).

Human Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Patients with histologically confirmed, resected malignant melanoma (American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages (39) IIB, IIC, and III) were eligible, and 9 patients were enrolled in the study. Imiquimod cream (5%, 250 mg) was self-applied topically by patients to a 4 x 5-cm outlined area of healthy extremity skin overnight on days 1–5 of each cycle. Application and removal times were recorded in treatment diaries. Recombinant human NY-ESO-1 protein (100 µg in 4 M urea and 50 mM glycine, provided by the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research) was injected intradermally into the imiquimod-treated site on day 3. Cycles were repeated every 3 wk for a total of four injections. Imiquimod was omitted on day 5 of the last cycle to avoid biopsy site irritation (Adams et al., 2008).
  • Immune Response: NY-ESO-1-specific Ab responses were detected in 4 of 9 patients (44%). However, Ab titers were significantly lower than those described in a previous study using i.m. injection of NY-ESO-1 protein with the saponin-based adjuvant ISCOMATRIX (Adams et al., 2008).
  • Side Effects: NY-ESO-1/imiquimod was well tolerated, and all patients completed the study. Treatment-related adverse events were mild and transient. Local reactions at the site of imiquimod application or vaccine injection were seen in 8 of 9 patients (89%). Four of 9 patients (44%) reported fatigue, and 2 of 9 patients (22%) experienced flu-like symptoms. All adverse events were grade 1 (CTC version 3.0) and were likely related to the immunomodulatory effects of imiquimod and vaccination (Adams et al., 2008).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: no responses were seen in the first 16 patients receiving SRL172 alone (Nicholson et al., 2003)

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: There were no or minimal responses to the epitopes tyrosinase 1–9 and tyrosinase 8 –17 by tetramer assay (Tagawa et al., 2003).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: There were no significant changes in the percentage of T-reg or MDSC between baseline and day 50 or day 90, except for a trend (p=0.07) towards a decreased percentage of monocyte gate MDSC (HLA-DR+ low/CD14+) at day 50 as illustrated in Figure 3. There were no significant correlations between the changes in MDSC or T-reg and clinical outcome (Tarhini et al., 2012)

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: TAA-specific CD8 T cells circulate in the blood stream. In total, 1/4 gp100-reponders (25%), 8/12 tyrosinase-responders (67%), 9/11 MAGE-C2-responders (82%), and 7/8 MAGE-A3 responders (88%) had CD8+ T cells that could be detected or found in both compartments (Benteyn et al., 2013).

Human Response

  • Vaccine Immune Response Type: VO_0003057
  • Immune Response: T-cell responses to melanoma peptides were observed in 42% of PBLs and 80% of SINs, but in patients vaccinated with DCs, they were observed in only 11% and 13%, respectively. Helper T-cell responses to the tetanus peptide were detected in PBLs after vaccination and correlated with T-cell reactivity to the melanoma peptides (Slingluff et al., 2003).
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