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Vaccine Comparison

ChAdOx1-MERS-S vaccine GLS-5300 Vaccine MVA-MERS-S vaccine
Vaccine Information Vaccine Information Vaccine Information
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Human
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: camel, mouse
  • Antigen: S protein
  • Vector: chimpanzee adenovirus Oxford 1 (Munster et al., 2017)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: Chimpanzee adenovirus Oxford 1 vector expressing S protein from MERS-CoV (Munster et al., 2017)
  • Type: DNA vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Human
  • Antigen: MERS-CoV S protein(Modjarrad et al., 2019)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Type: Recombinant vector vaccine
  • Status: Clinical trial
  • Host Species for Licensed Use: Human
  • Host Species as Laboratory Animal Model: camel, mouse
  • Antigen: S protein (Song et al., 2013)
  • Vector: modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA)(Song et al., 2013)
  • Immunization Route: Intramuscular injection (i.m.)
  • Description: recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccine vector carrying full MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein(Koch et al., 2020)
Host Response Host Response Host Response

Human Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Single intramuscular injection of ChAdOx1 5e9, 2.5e10, 5e10 MERS at (Folegatti et al., 2020)
  • Immune Response: Significant increase from baseline in T-cell (p<0·003) and IgG (p<0·0001) responses to the MERS-CoV spike antigen was observed at all doses. Four (44% [95% CI 19-73]) of nine participants had neutralizing antibodies against live MERS-CoV and 19 (79% [58-93]) of 24 participants had antibodies capable of neutralisation in a pseudotyped virus neutralisation assay (Folegatti et al., 2020).
  • Side Effects: 92 (74% [95% CI 66-81]) of 124 solicited adverse events were mild, 31 (25% [18-33]) were moderate, and all were self-limiting. One serious adverse event determined to be unrelated to vaccine.5e10 dosage had significantly higher proportion of moderate and severe adverse events to lower doses.(Folegatti et al., 2020)
  • Description: Phase I Clinical Results were sufficient to proceed to field phase 1b and phase 2 trails (Folegatti et al., 2020)

Human Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: Patients were immunized with 1mL of 0.67 mg (low dose), 2 mg (middle dose), or 6 mg (high dose) GLS-5300 on day 1, week 4, and week 12 with co-localized intramuscular electroporation afterwards. (Modjarrad et al., 2019)
  • Immune Response: S1-specific and S-specific antibodies were detectable in most patients between first and third doses. Neutralizing antibodies were not maintained through the end of the study (by most participants). IFN-γ detected in all groups. (Modjarrad et al., 2019)

Human Response

  • Vaccination Protocol: 1e7 plaque-forming unit or 1e8 PFU MVA-MERS-S intramuscularly injected at 0 and 28 days (Koch et al., 2020)
  • Immune Response: Following booster immunization, nine (75%) of 12 participants in the low-dose group and 11 (100%) participants in the high-dose group showed seroconversion using a MERS-CoV S1 ELISA at any timepoint during the study which correlated with MERS-CoV-specific neutralising antibodies (Spearman's correlation r=0·86 [95% CI 0·6960-0·9427], p=0·0001). MERS-CoV spike-specific T-cell responses were detected in ten (83%) of 12 immunised participants in the low-dose group and ten (91%) of 11 immunized participants in the high-dose group. (Koch et al., 2020)
  • Side Effects: Participants had no severe or serious adverse events. 67 vaccine-related adverse events were reported in ten (71%) of 14 participants in the low-dose group, and 111 were reported in ten (83%) of 12 participants in the high-dose group. Pain (seven at 1e7 vaccinationgroup vs ten 1e8 PFU vaccination group), swelling (two vs eight), induration (one vs nine), fatigue or maliase (ten vs seven) were most common events (Koch et al., 2020)
  • Description: Phase 1 trial results of MVA-MERS-S showed a benign safety profile

Mouse Response

  • Host Strain: BALB/c
  • Vaccination Protocol: 1e8 Infectious Units (IU) ChAdOx1 MERS via the intranasal or intramuscular rout(Munster et al., 2017)
  • Immune Response: increased viral neutralizing titer and reduced viral load (Munster et al., 2017)
  • Challenge Protocol: hDPP4 mice were challenged intranasally with 1e4 TCID50 MERS-CoV (strain HCoV-EMC2012) (Munster et al., 2017)
  • Efficacy: complete protection (Munster et al., 2017)
References References References
Folegatti et al., 2020: Folegatti PM, Bittaye M, Flaxman A, Lopez FR, Bellamy D, Kupke A, Mair C, Makinson R, Sheridan J, Rohde C, Halwe S, Jeong Y, Park YS, Kim JO, Song M, Boyd A, Tran N, Silman D, Poulton I, Datoo M, Marshal J, Themistocleous Y, Lawrie A, Roberts R, Berrie E, Becker S, Lambe T, Hill A, Ewer K, Gilbert S. Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus viral-vectored vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, uncontrolled, phase 1 trial. The Lancet. Infectious diseases. 2020; ; . [PubMed: 32325038].
Munster et al., 2017: Munster VJ, Wells D, Lambe T, Wright D, Fischer RJ, Bushmaker T, Saturday G, van Doremalen N, Gilbert SC, de Wit E, Warimwe GM. Protective efficacy of a novel simian adenovirus vaccine against lethal MERS-CoV challenge in a transgenic human DPP4 mouse model. NPJ vaccines. 2017; 2; 28. [PubMed: 29263883].
Modjarrad et al., 2019: Modjarrad K, Roberts CC, Mills KT, Castellano AR, Paolino K, Muthumani K, Reuschel EL, Robb ML, Racine T, Oh MD, Lamarre C, Zaidi FI, Boyer J, Kudchodkar SB, Jeong M, Darden JM, Park YK, Scott PT, Remigio C, Parikh AP, Wise MC, Patel A, Duperret EK, Kim KY, Choi H, White S, Bagarazzi M, May JM, Kane D, Lee H, Kobinger G, Michael NL, Weiner DB, Thomas SJ, Maslow JN. Safety and immunogenicity of an anti-Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus DNA vaccine: a phase 1, open-label, single-arm, dose-escalation trial. The Lancet. Infectious diseases. 2019; 19(9); 1013-1022. [PubMed: 31351922].
Koch et al., 2020: Koch T, Dahlke C, Fathi A, Kupke A, Krähling V, Okba NMA, Halwe S, Rohde C, Eickmann M, Volz A, Hesterkamp T, Jambrecina A, Borregaard S, Ly ML, Zinser ME, Bartels E, Poetsch JSH, Neumann R, Fux R, Schmiedel S, Lohse AW, Haagmans BL, Sutter G, Becker S, Addo MM. Safety and immunogenicity of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector vaccine candidate for Middle East respiratory syndrome: an open-label, phase 1 trial. The Lancet. Infectious diseases. 2020; ; . [PubMed: 32325037].
Song et al., 2013: Song F, Fux R, Provacia LB, Volz A, Eickmann M, Becker S, Osterhaus AD, Haagmans BL, Sutter G. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies. Journal of virology. 2013; 87(21); 11950-11954. [PubMed: 23986586].